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OpenOffice.org filters using the XML based file format





Abstract: This document explains the implementation of OpenOffice.org import and export filter components, focusing on filter components based on the OpenOffice.org XML file format. It is intended as a brief introduction to developers that want to implement OpenOffice.org filters for foreign file formats.





Table Of Contents

1 Preliminaries

2 The Innards of an OpenOffice.org Filter Component

2.1 The Big Picture

2.2 Where XML Comes In...

2.3 Waiter, the Export Please!

2.4 A Second Look at the Filter Wrapper

2.5 The Services

2.6 Interfaces

2.7 Built-in Components

2.8 Registering a New Filter With the Application

3 Code examples

3.1 The Filter Wrapper: Instantiating the XML Filters

3.2 Exporting through the XML filter

3.3 Import: Writing into the XML Filter

4 Appendix

4.1 Others Uses

4.2 Resources





1Preliminaries

They are several ways to get information into or out of OpenOffice.org: You can

  1. link against the application core,

  2. use the OpenOffice.org API,

  3. use the XML file format.

Each of these ways has unique advantages and disadvantages, that I will briefly summarize:

Using the core data structure and linking against the application core is the traditional way to implement filters in OpenOffice.org. The advantages this method offers are efficiency and direct access to the document. However, the core implementation provides a very implementation centric view of the applications. Additionally, there are a number of technical disadvantages: Every change in the core data structures or objects will have to be followed-up by corresponding changes in code that use them. Hence filters need to be recompiled to match the binary layout of the application core objects. While these things are manageable (albeit cumbersome) for closed source applications, this method is expected to create a maintenance nightmare if application and filter are developed separately, as is customary in open sources applications. Simultaneous delivery of a new application build and the corresponding filters developed by outside parties looks challenging.

Using the OpenOffice.org API (based on UNO) is a much better way, since it solves the technical problems indicated in the last paragraph. The UNO component technology insulates the filter from binary layout (and other compiler and version dependent issues). Additionally, the API is expected to be more stable than the core interfaces, and it even provides a shallow level of abstraction from the core applications. In fact, the native XML filter implementations largely make use of this strategy and are based on the OpenOffice.org API.

The third (and possibly surprising choice) is to import and export documents using the XML based file format. UNO-based XML import and export components feature all of the advantages of the previous method, but additionally provides the filter implementer with a clean, structured, and fully documented view of the document. As a significant difficulty in conversion between formats is the conceptual mapping from the one format to the other, a clean, well-structured view of the document may turn out to be beneficial.

2The Innards of an OpenOffice.org Filter Component

First, we will try to get an overview of the import and export process using UNO components. Let's first attempt to gain a view of...

2.1The Big Picture

An in-memory OpenOffice.org document is represented by it's document model. On disk, the same document is represented as a file. An import component must turn the latter into the former as shown by the diagram (Illustration 1).


Illustration 1: a generic import filter


If you make use of UNO, this diagram can be turned into programming reality quite easily. The three entities in the diagram, (the file, the model, and the filter) all have direct counterparts in UNO services. The services themselves may consist of several interfaces that finally map into C++ or Java classes. The following diagram annotates the entities with their corresponding services and interfaces:


Illustration 2: services and interfaces used by an import filter


In Illustration 2 (and all following illustrations) the gray part marks the part a filter implementer will have to program, while the white parts are already built into OpenOffice.org.

If the implementer decides to make use of the OpenOffice.org API directly, this diagram is the proper starting point: The filter writer must create a class that implements the ImportFilter service. To achieve this, the the InputStream must be obtained from the MediaDescriptor. The incoming data can then be interpreted, and the OpenOffice.org document can be constructed by calling the appropriate methods of the document model. (The available methods of course depend on the kind of document, as described by the document service.)

2.2Where XML Comes In...

If the advantages of an XML based import or export are desired, the filter implementer may make use of the existing XML import and export components. This way, the import logic does not need to deal with the document model itself, but rather generates the document in its OpenOffice.org XML file format representation. Done in a naive way, such a filter component would generate the XML, write it to file, and then call the built-in XML import to read it again. Since the XML import is based on the SAX API however, a better way exists: The import logic calls the SAX API. Since the XML reader component implements the SAX API, the document thus gets translated from the foreign format into its XML representation and then into the document model without the need to use temporary files, or even to render and subsequently parse an XML character stream.


Illustration 3: an XML-based import filter


The link between the XML based import filter and the XML reader is the SAX XDocumentHandler interface. Using this model, the filter implementer has to implement a class that takes a MediaDescriptor, reads the corresponding file, and calls the XDocumentHandler methods to generate the XML representation. Additionally, a filter component (labelled "Filter Wrapper" in the diagram) needs to be written that instantiates XML import component and the self-written import filter.

2.3Waiter, the Export Please!

The export into a foreign format may of course be implemented in the same fashion. Instead of the ImportFilter service, the component now implements the ExportFilter service. An XML-based export filter would implement the document handler interface itself, and write the resulting document in the proper format into the location indicated by the MediaDescriptor. For an XML-based export filter, the schematic looks like this:


Illustration 4: an XML-based export filter




2.4A Second Look at the Filter Wrapper

How do the built-in XML export or import components cooperate with the self-programmed filter? As was briefly mentioned above, the export filter services consist of two major interfaces: XImporter or XExporter for import and export, respectively, and XFilter for both filter types. The former interface passes in the actual document to be imported to or exported from, while the XFilter interfaces triggers the filtering process and passes in the MediaDescriptor which describes the source or target document.

In the case of an XML-based filter, this functionality gets distributed to two components. For the import, the built-in XML import component implements the XImporter interface as well as XDocumentHandler. The XML-based filter component should implement the XFilter interface, and additionally provide a way to set an XDocumentHandler. The filter wrapper then needs to instantiate both components and connect them by setting the built-in XML import as the document handler of the XML-based filter. The wrapper can then delegate the XImporter calls to the XML import and the XFilter calls to the XML-based filter, thereby implementing the filter ImportFilter service.

The export case is slightly more complicated. The additional problem is that the filter(…) call of the XFilter interface provides the MediaDescriptor and simultaneously controls the filter process. However, in the desired setup for an XML-based export filter, the built-in XML export controls the filtering process, but the XML-based filter handles the file output, and hence needs the MediaDescriptor. Therefore the filter wrapper has to operate as follows: First it has to instantiate the XML-based export filter. This filter has to implement the XDocumentHandler interface. Then it has to instantiate the XML export, which at instantiation time expects the document handler as a parameter. The filter wrapper delegates calls to both the XFilter and the XExporter interface to the XML export. For calls to the filter method of XFilter, it additionally has to pass the MediaDescriptor on to the XML-based export filter. The means by which this should happen is left to the implementer.

2.5The Services

We should now have a closer look at the involved services:

The service com.sun.star.document.ImportFilter describes a generic import filter. The core of the service is provided by the interfaces XImporter and XFilter (see below). XImporter supplies the filter object with the target document (in form of an XComponent). The XFilter is used to actually start the filtering process, supplying the MediaDescriptor for the source file as a parameter. Additionally, the ImportFilter service supports XInitialization and XPropertySet interfaces. The XInitialization interface serves to pass parameters to the filter at initialization time, while the XPropertySet can be used to get information from and about the filter component. It is generally read-only.

The twin of the ImportFilter is the service com.sun.star.document.ExportFilter. The main interfaces are XExporter and XFilter. The XExporter supplies the filter with the source document, whereas the XFilter starts the filter process. The MediaDescriptor that gets passed into the XFilter describes the output file. The ExportFilter supports the XInitialization and XPropertySet interfaces, just like the ImportFilter.

The com.sun.star.document.MediaDescriptor finally collects all information about a source or target file to be imported from or exported to. It contains meta information (such as the file name), as well as an InputStream which can be used to actually manipulate the file. Caveat: Objects obtained from the MediaDescriptor may not be referenced or otherwise held longer beyond the filter() method call. Doing so (e.g., keeping a reference to the InputStream obtained from the MediaDescriptor prevents the InputStream from being closed.)

The document model cannot be described by a single service, as it obviously has to vary greatly, depending on the type of document (e.g., text or spreadsheet.) An example for a document model service is the com.sun.star.text.AdvancedTextDocument service. What is important in this context, is that all document model services support the XComponent interface.

2.6Interfaces

The com.sun.star.document.XFilter interface features only two methods: filter(…) and cancel(). The former starts the filtering process based for the given MediaDescriptor, while the latter cancels an ongoing filter process. XFilter must be implemented for both, import and export filters.

The interface com.sun.star.document.XImporter is used for setting up an import before the filter() method from the XFilter interface is called. The XImporter supplies the document with its (empty) target document, i.e., the document whose content is about to be read from file.

The com.sun.star.document.XExporter is structured identically to the XImporter interface. It is used to set the target document, i.e., the document whose content should be written to file.

The com.sun.star.xml.sax.XDocumentHandler is the core interface for handling XML data in OpenOffice.org. It is part of the SAX interface. It has methods for all parts of XML documents, like start or end of elements or runs of characters. The XDocumentHandler interface is used for both, incoming and outgoing XML data, thus allowing chaining of components handling XML. A component that processes XML data should implement the XDocumentHandler interface. A component that will generate XML data should call the methods of an XDocumentHandler to output the events. The XExtendedDocumentHandler, being derived from XDocumentHandler, provides an extended version that can also handle comments. If the extended functionality is desired, the XDocumentHandler should be queried for the XExtendedDocumentHandler at runtime. However, implementers should make sure their components never rely on the presence of extended XExtendedDocumentHandler, but rather make sure they could also work with the plain XDocumentHandler. Since all vital parts of XML can be handled through XDocumentHandler, this should not pose much of a problem.

The interface com.sun.star.lang.XComponent is the parent interface for all document models. Actual documents derive from this model to provide model specific functionality, such as XTextDocument. A filter will have to query at runtime whether it can handle the supplied XModel.

Initialization of components can be supported through the com.sun.star.lang.XInitialization interface.

Properties of the filters can be queried using the com.sun.star.beans.XPropertySet interface. The names of the supported properties are part of the service description. In general, XPropertySet implementations support both reading and writing, but the intended use for filter components is to be read-only.



2.7Built-in Components

All of OpenOffice.org's applications have built-in XML import and export components. The component names are summarized in the following table:

Application

XML import

XML export

Writer

com.sun.star.comp.Writer.XMLExporter

com.sun.star.comp.Writer.XMLImporter

Calc

com.sun.star.comp.Calc.XMLExporter

com.sun.star.comp.Calc.XMLImporter

Chart

com.sun.star.comp.Chart.XMLExporter

com.sun.star.comp.Chart.XMLImporter

Impress

com.sun.star.comp.Impress.XMLExporter

com.sun.star.comp.Impress.XMLImporter

Draw

com.sun.star.comp.Draw.XMLExporter

com.sun.star.comp.Draw.XMLImporter

Additionally, the XML reader and writer components should be mentioned, even though they have not been discussed in the previous chapters. These two components implement the XML reader (or parser) and writer (or unparser) components used by OpenOffice.org for writing all it's XML files. They implement (XML writer) or use (XML parser) the XDocumentHandler interface. In some sense they could be considered XML-based filters, since they read or write character streams and turn them into SAX function calls. Their names are com.sun.star.xml.sax.Writer and com.sun.star.xml.sax.Parser, respectively.

2.8Registering a New Filter With the Application

There is a final, crucial step that will not be covered here: Registering a filter with the application. The registration process will make sure that the application knows the filter, and also knows which files the filter can be applied to. The filter registration is described here.

3Code examples

This chapter is intended to give brief code examples for the crucial steps in creating XML-based import or export filters. We'll start with the filter wrapper, followed by short examples for importing into and export from the XML filters.

3.1The Filter Wrapper: Instantiating the XML Filters

The filter wrapper needs to instantiate the built-in XML import or export components. The following code snippet will demonstrate this for an XML-based export filter.

using namespace ::com::sun::star;

// Instantiate the XML export filter

// Prerequisites: 
// 1) a service factory, 
// 2) a document handler, 
// 3) a string with the service name.

// Obtain the service factory
uno::Reference< lang::XMultiServiceFactory > xServiceFactory = …;

// Obtain (or create) the XML-based output filter. It has to implement
// the XDocumentHandler interface, so the export component can write to it.
uno::Reference< xml::sax::XDocumentHandler > xHandler = … <your filter> ; 

// Prepare arguments passed to the XML export filter:
// The XML-based filter in form of an XdocumentHandler.
// Arguments are passed by a sequence of Any. 
// Our sequence will contain only 1 element.
uno::Sequence<uno::Any> aArgs(1);
aArgs[0] <<= xHandler;

// Instantiate the exporter from the factory.
::rtl::OUString sService =
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("com.sun.star.comp.Writer.XMLExporter");

uno::Reference< document::XExporter > xExporter(
   xServiceFactory->createInstanceWithArguments(sService),	aArgs ),
   uno::UNO_QUERY );
ASSERT( xExporter.is(), "can' instantiate XML exporter" );

// Now we have the two components in xHandler and xExporter and can start 
// calling the XFilter and XExporter methods. Note that the xHandler needs
// to be informed about its MediaDescriptor.

3.2Exporting through the XML filter

The following code snippet could be located in a filter wrapper for an XML-based export filter. The following two methods implement the gist of a filter wrapper for an XML-based export. They are really simple because the filter wrapper doesn't really do much of its own. It only delegates to it's two components.

using namespace ::com::sun::star;

void SAL_CALL <filter wrapper>::setSourceDocument( 
	const uno::Reference<lang::XComponent>& xComponent )
{
    // delegate to XExporter of the built-in XML export
    xExporter->setSourceDocument( xComponent );
}

sal_Bool SAL_CALL <filter wrapper>::filter( 
    const uno::Sequence<beans::PropertyValue>& aDescriptor )
    throw(uno::RuntimeException)
{
    // set MediaDescriptor at XML-based export filter
    ...

    // get access to XFilter interface of XML export
    uno::Reference<document::XFilter> xFilter(xExporter, uno::UNO_QUERY);
    xFilter->filter(aDescriptor);
}

3.3Import: Writing into the XML Filter

The next example should detail how an import filter would communicate with the XML import component. Basically, it only needs to call the XDocumentHandler methods. The following code implements the notorious "Hello World!" program as an OpenOffice.org import filter.

using namespace ::com::sun::star;

// instantiate the XML import component 
::rtl::OUString sService =
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("com.sun.star.comp.Writer.XMLImporter")
uno::Reference<xml::sax::XDocumentHandler> xImport(
    xServiceFactory->createInstance(sService), uno::UNO_QUERY );
ASSERT( xImport.is(), "can't instantiate XML import" );

// OK. Now we have the import. Let's make a real simple document.

// a few comments:
// 1. We will use string constants from xmloff/xmlkywd.hxx
// 2. For convenience, we'll use a globally shared attribute list from the 
//    xmloff project (xmloff/attrlist.hxx)
// 3. In a real project, we would pre-construct our OUString, rather than use
//    the slow createFromAscii(…) method every time.

// We will write the following document: (the unavoidable 'Hello World!')
// <office:document 
//      office:class="text" 
//      xmlns:office="http://openoffice.org/2000/office" 
//      xmlns:text="http://openoffice.org/2000/text" >
//   <office:body>
//     <text:p>Hello World!</text:p>
//   </office:body>
// </office:document>

SvXMLAttributeList aAttrList;

xHandler->startDocument();

// our first element: first build up the attribute list, then start the element
// DON'T FORGET TO ADD THE NAMESPACES!
aAttrList.AddAttribute(
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("xmlns:office"), 
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("CDATA"), 
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("http://openoffice.org/2000/office") );
aAttrList.AddAttribute(
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("xmlns:text"), 
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("CDATA"), 
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("http://openoffice.org/2000/text") );
aAttrList.AddAttribute(
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("office:class"), 
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("CDATA"), 
        ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("text") );
xHandler->startElement(
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("office:document"),
    aAttrList );

// body element (no attributes)
aAttrList.clear();
xHandler->startElement(
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("office:body"),
    aAtrList );

// paragraph element (no attributes)
aAttrList.clear();
xHandler->startElement(
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("text:p"),
    aAtrList );

// write text
xHandler->characters(
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("Hello World!") );

// close paragraph
xHandler->startElement(
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("text:p"),

// close body
xHandler->endElement(
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("office:body") );

// close document element
xHandler->endElement(
    ::rtl::OUString::createFromAscii("office:document") );

// close document
xHandler->endDocument();

4Appendix

4.1 Other Uses

This chapter briefly mentions a few other uses of XML-based filter components that provide additional value and versatility.

In some circumstances, it may be desirable to have standalone format conversion tools. This would, for example, enable batch conversion of legacy documents. The XML-based filter components allow us to do that with little extra effort. Let us recall that an XML-based import filter uses OpenOffice.org's built-in XML import to generate the document. It calls the (generic) XDocumentHandler interface after it has been supplied with the XDocumentHandler implementation by the filter wrapper. Now if the filter wrapper instead supplies the XML-based import filter with the XML writer component (which implements the XDocumentHandler interface as well), then the XML writer component will output the XML as a character stream to disk. Thus we have created the desired standalone conversion utility by only implementing a new filter wrapper!


Illustration 5: a standalone file format conversion utility


A different possible use is the chaining of XML-based filters. Suppose the foreign file format in question is also based on XML. Now it doesn't make sense to re-implement the XML parser inside that component, so it seems natural to use the existing parser (or unparser) component. This way, our import (or export) filter would have to implement the XDocumentHandler interface for its input, and also use an XDocumentHandler interface for its output. The resulting implementation is sketched in Illustration 6. Note that such XML to XML filters could be chained arbitrarily.


Illustration 6: a filter chain with one element


Note that, if the other application is also an OpenSource application, it could use UNO component technology as well, and thus use the very same filter components for its own import and export. A filter converting from the foreign XML into OpenOffice.org XML would be an import filter for OpenOffice.org, and simultaneously an export filter for the other application.

As OpenOffice.org is being developed further, it becomes likely that eventually changes to the file format will have to be made. It is mandatory to supply users with the ability to read and write the old formats of course. This could indeed be handled by an XML to XML transformation, with one format being the old OpenOffice.org XML format, and the other being the new format.

Note that such a filter could also be used by users of the older versions to read and write documents in the new format! Additionally, it could be chained between other XML-based import or export filters, allowing users to utilize import and export filters for versions other than their own. Essentially, this would achieve a decoupling of application, filter, and file format version. The opportunities this opens up are quite amazing: If a new file format is implemented, users would not be forced to upgrade their application to make use of the new filter. Also, users of newer application versions could still use filters developed for the older format.

4.2Resources

The following resources may provide additional information:


The xmloff development team
Summarized by dvo

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